Journal of Facade Design and Engineering <p>The <em>Journal of Facade Design and Engineering (JFDE)</em> presents new research results and new proven practice of the field of facade design and engineering. The goal is to improve building technologies, as well as process management and architectural design.</p> en-US <p>Authors or their institutions retain copyright to their publications without restrictions.</p> [email protected] (JFDE Editor) [email protected] (Stichting OpenAccess) Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Active, Passive and Cyber-Physical Adaptive Façade Strategies <p>In view of the required energy savings in the building sector, there is an urgent need for innovative and sustainable solutions to increase the performance of building envelopes. Adaptive façades can make an important contribution, whereby passive low-tech strategies and active high-tech solutions are apparently incompatible. In current digitalization, new technologies and methods for the implementation of adaptive façades emerge in the framework of Cyber-Physical Systems. The investigation follows the research question: How can active and passive approaches of adaptive façades be mediated and what potential do Cyber-Physical Systems have for the implementation of hybrid solution approaches in the future? The article presents a comparative case study of the two research projects ADAPTEX and PRÄKLIMA as examples of passive and active adaptation strategies in the façade industry. In this context, the potential for further research of Cyber-Physical Systems in the application domain of adaptive façades as a catalyst for high-performance and multifunctional solutions, and as a mediator between both strategies, is highlighted. The main findings are the potential application of cyber-physical system technologies to the design and monitoring of passive adaptive façade solutions, as well as the possible integration of passively conceptualized components into active overall systems.</p> Jens Böke, Paul-Rouven Denz, Natchai Suwannapruk, Puttakhun Vongsingha Copyright (c) 2022 Jens Böke, Paul-Rouven Denz, Natchai Suwannapruk, Puttakhun Vongsingha Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Influence of Automated Façades on Occupants <p>Several studies performing building simulations showed that the automated control of façades can provide higher levels of indoor environmental quality and lower energy demand in buildings, in comparison to manually controlled scenarios. However, in several case studies with human volunteers, automated<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>controls were found to be disruptive or unsatisfactory for occupants. For instance, automated façades became a source of dissatisfaction for occupants when they did not fulfil individual environmental requirements, did not provide personal control options, or did not correctly integrate occupant preferences with façade operation in energy-efficient controls. This article reviews current evidence from empirical studies with human volunteers to identify the key factors that affect occupant response to automated façades. Only twenty-six studies were found to empirically investigate occupant response to automated façades from 1998 onwards. Among the reviewed studies, five groups of factors were found to influence occupant interaction with automated façades and namely: (1) personal factors, (2) environmental conditions, (3) type and mode of operation, (4) type of façade technology, and (5) contextual factors.. Overall, occupant response to automated façades is often poorly considered in research studies reviewed because of the following three reasons: (i) the lack of established methods or procedures for assessing occupant response to automated façade controls,<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>(ii) poor understanding of occupant multi-domain comfort preferences in terms of façade operation, (iii) fragmented research landscape, on one hand results are mainly related to similar contextual or climatic conditions, which undermines their applicability to other climates, while on the other hand the lack of replication within the same conditions, which also undermines replicability within the same condition.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>Lastly, this paper suggests future research directions to achieve a holistic and more comprehensive understanding of occupant response to automated façades, aiming to achieve more user-centric automated façade solutions and advanced control algorithms. In particular, research on the impact of personal factors on occupant satisfaction with automated controls is deemed paramount.</p> Pedro de la Barra, Alessandra Luna-Navarro, Alejandro Prieto, Claudio Vásquez, Ulrick Knaack Copyright (c) 2022 Pedro de la Barra, Alessandra Luna-Navarro, Alejandro Prieto, Claudio Vásquez, Ulrick Knaack Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 CoolSkin <p>The article investigates the dependencies of façade design and construction in the integration of a sustainable solar-powered cooling system based on closed adsorption. The presented work focuses on the possible design variants of the envelope surface of the façade -integrated adsorber. The principle of adsorption cooling is presented and, based on this, architectural options for façade integration are investigated. This is done both constructively and visually. For each variant, the solar gains are summed up and compared with each other. A functionally designed adsorber, similar to a flat plate collector, serves as a reference and starting point for the modifications. It provides the comparative value for the energy evaluation. The modification is limited to the visible surface of the absorber. The texture of the solar adsorbing sheet was changed and the glazing used was replaced by ETFE cushions and by a novel ETFE vacuum panel. Finally, the solar simulation results were integrated into the higher-level system simulation to evaluate the resulting gain in cooling capacity. The results show that the system could generate more than 100 W per installed square metre of adsorber façade. Furthermore, higher solar gains compared to the reference case can be obtained at particular times of the day due to geometry and material changes. However, the modifications always lead to a reduction of the total cooling power. In conclusion, the simulation results reveal that design flexibility is possible, but currently the studied design variants have a lower cooling capacity compared to the solely functionally designed adsorber.</p> Andreas Greiner, Olaf Böckmann, Simon Weber, Martin Ostermann, Micha Schaefer Copyright (c) 2022 Andreas Greiner, Olaf Böckmann, Simon Weber, Martin Ostermann, Micha Schaefer Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Renovating Modern Heritage <p>The post-war building stock is increasingly being transformed. Even at objects protected as listed heritage, renovation usually results in a high degree of material exchange and replacement. This is especially the case in regard to historic curtain wall constructions. Based on the case study of the Commerzbank High-rise and original planning documents by Gartner, the paper focuses on the applied strategy of disassembling and reassembling the curtained aluminium sandwich elements, and the resulting upgrading of the original façade with a newly installed interlayer for insulation. The paper discusses the possible transfer of this strategy, which largely depended on the existing high quality of the aluminium components, their corrosion-resistant properties and low weight. The case study of the former Commerzbank High-rise indicates that a long-term preservation of post-war modern building stock can be achieved without wholesale replacement of original building components. The reuse of existing materials and components represents a promising approach.</p> Rouven S Grom, Andreas W Putz Copyright (c) 2022 Rouven S Grom, Andreas W Putz Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Timber-based Façades with Different Connections and Claddings: Assessing Materials’ Reusability, Water Use and Global Warming Potential <p>Timber-based façade technologies have the potential to effectively reduce the carbon footprint, reduce water use in construction, and minimize waste, when their manufacturing process is highly prefabricated. Additionally, avoiding glue parts can enhance the sustainability of the façade as its elements can be replaced (extending the durability of façades and therefore buildings) and separated once that they reach their end of life (to re-use or recycle them). Thus, the connection between materials might have a considerable impact on the façade’s sustainability. Moreover, timber-based façades can have different claddings, impacting on the water needed for the technology and their Global Warming Potential (GWP). This paper assesses, through a novel methodological approach, materials’ reusability, water use, and GWP for different façade connections and claddings. Four prototypes with different connections (staples, screws, timber nails, and geometrical assembly) were built. Experimental activities representing façade elements’ substitution and disassembly provided qualitative and quantitative information about production, extraordinary maintenance, and end-of-life phases. Through these tests, the quantity of material that could be re-used and disposed in such phases was quantified and then inserted in a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). LCA was conducted using EF v.3.0 impact method and components were modelled with EPD information and Ecoinvent cut-off 3.7 database. According to the results, a timber-based façade with timber nails and wood cladding is the most promising of reusable façade materials, decreasing the water use and GWP.</p> Miren Juaristi, Ilaria Sebastiani, Stefano Avesani Copyright (c) 2022 Miren Juaristi, Ilaria Sebastiani, Stefano Avesani Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 The Potential of Static and Thermochromic Window Films for Energy Efficient Building Renovations <p>The type of glazing implemented in a building plays an important role in the heat management of a building. Solar heat entering through glazing causes overheating of interior spaces and increases building’s cooling load. In this work, the energy saving potential of window films based on Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (CLC) is explored. This emerging technology allows for the fabrication of static and thermochromic solar heat rejecting window films and can provide a simple renovation solution towards energy efficient buildings. Simulations on a model office showed that static CLC-based window films can save up to 29% on a building’s annual energy use in warm climates. In climates with distinct summer and winter seasons, static solar heat rejecting windows films cause an additional heating demand during winters, which reduces the annual energy savings. In these climates, the benefit of thermochromic CLC-based window films becomes evident and an annual energy saving up to 22% can be achieved.</p> Stijn Kragt, E R van den Ham, H Sentjens, A P H J Schenning, Tillmann Klein Copyright (c) 2022 Stijn Kragt, E R van den Ham, H Sentjens, A P H J Schenning, Tillmann Klein Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Additively Manufactured Urban Multispecies Façades for Building Renovation <p>This research investigates the potential of additive manufacturing and digital planning tools for the creation of location-specific façade redesigns that can host cavity-dependent animal species and develops methods for their realization. The proposed approach is explored based on a case study of a student dormitory in need of renovation in the urban area of Munich. Based on theoretical knowledge and design experimentations that link the fields of architecture, climate-responsive design, terrestrial ecology, and digital fabrication, a set of design principles for the additive manufacturing of inhabitable ceramic tiles is conceived and transferred into a computational design tool. The conception of single tiles and the overall façade design are developed in terms of their positive climatic impact on both the animal species and humans, their nesting opportunities, their structural feasibility, and their integrability with standard ceramic façade systems. To verify the fabricability of the proposed design, a façade fragment was additively manufactured as a prototype in 1:1 scale. The initial findings presented in this paper provide a glimpse of how emerging digital technologies could provide new ways to expand current habitual architectural planning and fabrication tools, to enable the creation of site-specific solutions, and to bring together human and animal needs.</p> Iuliia Larikova, Julia Fleckenstein, Ata Chokhachian, Thomas Auer, Wolfgang Weisser, Kathrin Dörfler Copyright (c) 2022 Iuliia Larikova, Julia Fleckenstein, Ata Chokhachian, Thomas Auer, Wolfgang Weisser, Kathrin Dörfler Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Retrofitting Potential of Building envelopes Based on Semantic Surface Models Derived From Point Clouds <p>To meet the climate goals of the Paris agreement, the focus on energy efficiency needs to be shifted to increase the retrofitting rate of the existing building stock. Due to the lack of usable information on the existing building stock, reasoning about the retrofitting potential in early design stages is difficult. Therefore, deconstructing and building new is often regarded as the more reliable and economical option. Digital methods are missing or not robust enough to capture and reconstruct digital models of existing buildings efficiently and automatically derive reliable decision-support about whether demolition and new construction or retrofitting of existing buildings is more suitable. This paper proposes a robust, automated method for calculating existing buildings' life cycle assessments (LCA) using point clouds as input data. The main focus lies in bridging the gap between point clouds and importing semantic 3D models for LCA calculation. Therefore, the automation steps include a geometric transformation from point cloud to 3D surface model, followed by a semantic classification of the surfaces to thermal layers and their materials by assuming the surface elements by building age class.</p> Edina Selimovic, Florian Noichl, Kasimir Forth, André Borrmann Copyright (c) 2022 Edina Selimovic, Florian Noichl, Kasimir Forth, André Borrmann Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Suntex <p>The key objective of this research project is to “create a new architectural textile, Suntex, by interweaving thin film solar cells and electrically conductive yarn into a structural technical textile, so it can generate energy while it is providing shade, structure or an aesthetic update to a building.”</p> <p>Textile has strong potential as a sustainable building material because it can be lightweight, material efficiency and low carbon. Moreover, its flexibility provides great design freedom and its transparency makes it very suitable for façade applications, maintaining views to the outside while providing solar shading.&nbsp;Suntex is a solar textile, currently in development, intended for textile architecture applications like textile façades. By combining three qualities, namely providing the building with energy generation, solar shading and a unique aesthetic appearance, which also promotes the acceptance of solar technology, it offers a positive climate impact.</p> <p>Suntex can be considered as a new type of membrane material for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV). With this innovative, constructive fabric, enormous surfaces that are still unused can be outfitted with energy-generating potential.</p> <p>This paper presents a design case to analyse the potential impact of Suntex as a textile façade. Based on insights into the development process and experiment results so far, it evaluates the feasibility and impact from a technical and design perspective.</p> Pauline van Dongen, Ellen Britton, Anna Wetzel, Rogier Houtman, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, Stephanie Ramos Copyright (c) 2022 Pauline van Dongen, Ellen Britton, Anna Wetzel, Rogier Houtman, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, Stephanie Ramos Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Editorial <p>The PowerSkin conference series is a biennial event organised cooperatively between TU München, TU Darmstadt, and TU Delft, which is already in its fourth edition, having started in 2017. This coming edition of PowerSkin has also been supported and organised with the support of RWTH Aachen. The conference addresses the role of building skins in accomplishing a carbon-neutral building stock. Therefore, integrating the environmental dimension of material and construction into the design phase is increasingly essential. This is done primarily by considering the energy and emissions linked to the building fabric's fabrication and its ability for reuse and recycling.</p> <p>For this reason, the focus of the PowerSKIN Conference 2022 is the building fabric with its environmental potential to unlock. Therefore the theme is: "Build in stock – renovation strategies: inorganic, circular materials vs organic, compostable materials".</p> <p>This theme is discussed through the following sub-themes:</p> <ul> <li>Envelope: the building envelope as an interface for interacting between indoor and outdoor environments, new functionalities, technical developments and material properties.</li> <li>Energy: new concepts, accomplished projects, and visions for the interaction between building structure, envelope and energy technologies.</li> <li>Environment: Façades or elements of façades which aim to provide highly comfortable surroundings where environmental control strategies, energy generation and/or storage are an integrated part of an active skin.</li> <li>This special issue of the Journal of Façade Design and Engineering dedicated to PowerSKIN 2022 showcases the conference's most prominent and relevant papers, aiming to enhance their visibility for a larger audience.</li> </ul> Ulrich Knaack Copyright (c) 2022 Ulrich Knaack Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100