Keywords:Automated control, automated facades, occupant-façade interaction, occupant acceptance, occupant comfort, dynamic facades
Several studies performing building simulations showed that the automated control of façades can provide higher levels of indoor environmental quality and lower energy demand in buildings, in comparison to manually controlled scenarios. However, in several case studies with human volunteers, automated controls were found to be disruptive or unsatisfactory for occupants. For instance, automated façades became a source of dissatisfaction for occupants when they did not fulfil individual environmental requirements, did not provide personal control options, or did not correctly integrate occupant preferences with façade operation in energy-efficient controls. This article reviews current evidence from empirical studies with human volunteers to identify the key factors that affect occupant response to automated façades. Only twenty-six studies were found to empirically investigate occupant response to automated façades from 1998 onwards. Among the reviewed studies, five groups of factors were found to influence occupant interaction with automated façades and namely: (1) personal factors, (2) environmental conditions, (3) type and mode of operation, (4) type of façade technology, and (5) contextual factors.. Overall, occupant response to automated façades is often poorly considered in research studies reviewed because of the following three reasons: (i) the lack of established methods or procedures for assessing occupant response to automated façade controls, (ii) poor understanding of occupant multi-domain comfort preferences in terms of façade operation, (iii) fragmented research landscape, on one hand results are mainly related to similar contextual or climatic conditions, which undermines their applicability to other climates, while on the other hand the lack of replication within the same conditions, which also undermines replicability within the same condition. Lastly, this paper suggests future research directions to achieve a holistic and more comprehensive understanding of occupant response to automated façades, aiming to achieve more user-centric automated façade solutions and advanced control algorithms. In particular, research on the impact of personal factors on occupant satisfaction with automated controls is deemed paramount.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pedro de la Barra, Alessandra Luna-Navarro, Alejandro Prieto, Claudio Vásquez, Ulrick Knaack
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors or their institutions retain copyright to their publications without restrictions.
Bakker, L. G., Hoes-van Oeffelen, E. C. M., Loonen, R. C. G. M., & Hensen, J. L. M. (2014). User satisfaction and interaction with automated dynamic façades: A pilot study. Building and Environment, 78, 44–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2014.04.007
Balocco, C., & Petrone, G. (2017). Numerical Modelling for the Thermal Performance Assessment of a Semi-Opaque Façade with a Multilayer of Nano-Structured and Phase Change Materials. Buildings 2017, Vol. 7, Page 90, 7(4), 90. www.mdpi.com/journal/buildings
Barozzi, M., Lienhard, J., Zanelli, A., & Monticelli, C. (2016). The Sustainability of Adaptive Envelopes: Developments of Kinetic Architecture. Procedia Engineering, 155, 275–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.029
Bian, Y., Dai, Q., Ma, Y., & Liu, L. (2020). Variable set points of glare control strategy for side-lit spaces: Daylight glare tolerance by time of day. Solar Energy, 201, 268–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SOLENER.2020.03.016
Boyce, P., Hunter, C., & Howlett, O. (2003). The Benefits of Daylight through Windows Sponsored by: Capturing the Daylight Dividend Program.
Carmody, J., Selkowitz, S. E., Lee, E. S., & Arasteh, D. K. (2004). Window Systems for High-Performance Buildings. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,.
Cheng, Z., Xia, L., Zhao, Q., Zhao, Y., Wang, F., & Song, F. (2013). Integrated control of blind and lights in daily office environment. IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, 587–592. https://doi.org/10.1109/COASE.2013.6653972
Cheng, Z., Zhao, Q., Wang, F., Jiang, Y., Xia, L., & Ding, J. (2016). Satisfaction based Q-learning for integrated lighting and blind control. Energy and Buildings, 127, 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2016.05.067
Choi, J. H., Loftness, V., Nou, D., Tinianov, B., & Yeom, D. (2019). Multi-Season Assessment of Occupant Responses to Manual Shading and Dynamic Glass in a Workplace Environment. Energies 2020, Vol. 13, Page 60, 13(1), 60. https://doi.org/10.3390/EN13010060
Clear, R. D., Inkarojrit, V., & Lee, E. S. (2006). Subject responses to electrochromic windows. Energy and Buildings, 38(7), 758–779. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2006.03.011
Day, J. K., Futrell, B., Cox, R., & Ruiz, S. N. (2019). Blinded by the light: Occupant perceptions and visual comfort assessments of three dynamic daylight control systems and shading strategies. Building and Environment, 154, 107–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2019.02.037
Goovaerts, C., Descamps, F., & Jacobs, V. A. (2017). Shading control strategy to avoid visual discomfort by using a low-cost camera: A field study of two cases. Building and Environment, 125, 26–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2017.08.030
Grynning, S., Lolli, N., Wågø, S., & Risholt, B. (2017). Solar Shading in Low Energy Office Buildings - Design Strategy and User Perception. Journal of Daylighting, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Pp. 1-14, 4(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.15627/JD.2017.1
Guillemin, A., & Morel, N. (2001). An innovative lighting controller integrated in a self-adaptive building control system. Energy and Buildings, 33(5), 477–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(00)00100-6
Guillemin, A., & Morel, N. (2002). Experimental results of a self-adaptive integrated control system in buildings: a pilot study. Solar Energy, 72(5), 397–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-092X(02)00015-4
Gunay, H. B., O’Brien, W., Beausoleil-Morrison, I., & Gilani, S. (2017). Development and implementation of an adaptive lighting and blinds control algorithm. Building and Environment, 113, 185–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2016.08.027
Heschong, L., Wright, R. L., & Okura, S. (2013). Daylighting Impacts on Human Performance in School. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1080/00994480.2002.10748396, 31(2), 101–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/00994480.2002.10748396
Hosseini, S. M., Mohammadi, M., & Guerra-Santin, O. (2019). Interactive kinetic façade: Improving visual comfort based on dynamic daylight and occupant’s positions by 2D and 3D shape changes. Building and Environment, 165, 106396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106396
Izadyar, N., Miller, W., Rismanchi, B., & Garcia-Hansen, V. (2020). Impacts of façade openings’ geometry on natural ventilation and occupants’ perception: A review. Building and Environment, 170, 106613. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2019.106613
Jain, S., & Garg, V. (2018). A review of open loop control strategies for shades, blinds and integrated lighting by use of real-time daylight prediction methods. Building and Environment, 135(March), 352–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.03.018
Karlsen, L., Heiselberg, P., & Bryn, I. (2015). Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies: Slats closed and slats in cut-off position. Solar Energy, 115, 166–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SOLENER.2015.02.031
Karlsen, L., Heiselberg, P., Bryn, I., & Johra, H. (2016). Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate. Energy and Buildings, 118, 316–328.
Kim, J. H., Park, Y. J., Yeo, M. S., & Kim, K. W. (2009). An experimental study on the environmental performance of the automated blind in summer. Building and Environment, 44(7), 1517–1527. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2008.08.006
Knaack, U., Klein, T., Bilow, M., & Auer, T. (2014). Façades: Principles of Construction (2., rev. e). Birkhäuser. https://doi.org/doi:10.1515/9783038211457
Konstantoglou, M., & Tsangrassoulis, A. (2016). Dynamic operation of daylighting and shading systems: A literature review. In Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (Vol. 60, pp. 268–283). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.246
Korsavi, S. S., Jones, R. V., & Fuertes, A. (2021). The gap between automated building management system and office occupants’ manual window operations: Towards personalised algorithms. Automation in Construction, 132, 103960. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AUTCON.2021.103960
Lee, E. S., Claybaugh, E. S., & Lafrance, M. (2012). End user impacts of automated electrochromic windows in a pilot retrofit application. Energy and Buildings, 47, 267–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2011.12.003
Lee, E. S., Dibartolomeo, D. L., Vine, E. L., & Selkowitz, S. E. (1998). Integrated Perfonnance of an Automated Venetian Blind l Electric Lighting System in a Full-Scale Private Office.
Lolli, N., Nocente, A., Brozovsky, J., Woods, R., & Grynning, S. (2019). Automatic vs Manual Control Strategy for Window Blinds and Ceiling Lights: Consequences to Perceived Visual and Thermal Discomfort. Journal of Daylighting, Vol. 6, Issue 2, Pp. 112-123, 6(2), 112–123. https://doi.org/10.15627/JD.2019.11
Lolli, N., Nocente, A., & Grynning, S. (2020). Perceived Control in an Office Test Cell, a Case Study. Buildings 2020, Vol. 10, Page 82, 10(5), 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/BUILDINGS10050082
Luna-Navarro, A., Hunt, G. R., & Overend, M. (2022). Dynamic façades – An exploratory campaign to assess occupant multi-domain environmental satisfaction and façade interaction. Building and Environment, 211, 108703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108703
Luna-Navarro, A., Loonen, R., Juaristi, M., Monge-Barrio, A., Attia, S., & Overend, M. (2020). Occupant-Façade interaction: a review and classification scheme. Building and Environment, 177, 371–377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106880
Meerbeek, B., te Kulve, M., Gritti, T., Aarts, M., van Loenen, E., & Aarts, E. (2014). Building automation and perceived control: A field study on motorized exterior blinds in Dutch offices. Building and Environment, 79, 66–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2014.04.023
Motamed, A., Deschamps, L., & Scartezzini, J. L. (2017). On-site monitoring and subjective comfort assessment of a sun shadings and electric lighting controller based on novel High Dynamic Range vision sensors. Energy and Buildings, 149, 58–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2017.05.017
Motamed, A., Deschamps, L., & Scartezzini, J. L. (2019). Eight-month experimental study of energy impact of integrated control of sun shading and lighting system based on HDR vision sensor. Energy and Buildings, 203, 109443. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2019.109443
Painter, B., Irvine, K. N., Waskett, R. K., & Mardaljevic, J. (2016). Evaluation of a Mixed Method Approach for Studying User Interaction with Novel Building Control Technology. Energies 2016, Vol. 9, Page 215, 9(3), 215. https://doi.org/10.3390/EN9030215
Reinhart, C. F., & Voss, K. (2003). Monitoring manual control of electric lighting and blinds. Lighting Research and Technology, 35(3), 243–258. https://doi.org/10.1191/1365782803LI064OA
Sadeghi, S. A., Karava, P., Konstantzos, I., & Tzempelikos, A. (2016). Occupant interactions with shading and lighting systems using different control interfaces: A pilot field study. Building and Environment, 97, 177–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BUILDENV.2015.12.008
Sullivan, R., Lee, E. S., Papamichael, K., Rubin, M., & Selkowitz, S. E. (1994). Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows. Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion XIII, 2255(9), 443–455. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.185387
Tabadkani, A., Roetzel, A., Li, H. X., & Tsangrassoulis, A. (2021). A review of occupant-centric control strategies for adaptive façades. Automation in Construction. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2020.103464
Tang, S. K. (2017). A Review on Natural Ventilation-enabling Façade Noise Control Devices for Congested High-Rise Cities. Applied Sciences 2017, Vol. 7, Page 175, 7(2), 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/APP7020175
Taniguchi, T., Iwata, T., & Ito, D. (2012). Blind control method based on prevention of discomfort glare taking account of building conditions. Experiencing Light 2012 International Conference. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307138640_Blind_control_method_based_on_prevention_of_discomfort_glare_taking_account_of_building_conditions
Tzempelikos, A., & Athienitis, A. K. (2007). The impact of shading design and control on building cooling and lighting demand. Solar Energy, 81(3), 369–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SOLENER.2006.06.015
Vine, E., Lee, E., Clear, R., DiBartolomeo, D., & Selkowitz, S. (1998). Office worker response to an automated Venetian blind and electric lighting system: a pilot study. Energy and Buildings, 28(2), 205–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(98)00023-1
Wu, Y., Kämpf, J. H., & Scartezzini, J. L. (2020). A survey study of occupants? visual satisfaction on an automated venetian blind based on sky luminance monitoring and lighting simulation. Proceedings of the ISES Solar World Congress 2019 and IEA SHC International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry 2019, 685–692. https://doi.org/10.18086/SWC.2019.13.05