Keywords:façade characterisation, experimental techniques, airflow monitoring, tracer gas, velocity profile, ultrasound, pressure difference, PIV, LDV, temperature profile & heat flux
Ventilated façades are applied in both new and existing buildings. It has been claimed that these components help to reduce energy use in buildings and improve occupant comfort. However, their performance strongly depends on the airflow passing through the cavity. In order to characterise and to model the behaviour of the ventilation and its effectiveness, the components need to be tested in the laboratory, as well as under real dynamic weather conditions. Despite the steadily growing research in this area, there are few studies with conclusive results about the reliability of existing experimental procedures for characterisation of airflow in the ventilated cavities. The aim of this paper is to describe and review recent state of the art experimental assessments for the airflow characterisation in ventilated cavities. The paper starts with a short introduction on the potentialities and limitations of different experimental methodologies, and continues with a detailed classification and description of the most relevant monitoring techniques for airflow in air cavities of façades that have been developed in recent years.