Selection of Exterior Wall System and MCDM Derived Decision





exterior wall system, building materials, EDAS , multi-criteria decision making


In the field of construction practice, decisions regarding material selection frequently come down to a choice based on tradition, i.e. recommendations based on the experience of the engineers hired by an employer as designers, contractors, or energy efficiency engineers. In the presented research, in addition to the Employer, technical individuals were involved in the decision-making process. The harmonisation of Employer opinions and those of experts were obtained through NGT technique and Delphi based method, due to the fact that different criteria for a decision could represent a field of interest of an individual participant in the process. The result was determining the criteria, their strictness, and their weighted effect. As multi-criteria decision analysis has evolved into a powerful tool that assists decision-makers in generating “a cut above” choice in resolving specific cases and overcoming certain problems in the architectural and construction industry, the use of the MCDM method EDAS+ in the research ensured an exterior wall system ranking that was not influenced by experience or marketing.

Without intending to favour any manufacturer of building materials, the research presents eight exterior wall systems belonging to different categories of core materials, all with individual features, similarities, and differences.

When compared to otherwise arbitrary estimates or recommendations based on experience and the most commonly used building materials, the application of multi-criteria decision analysis in the case of exterior wall system selection for a particular 1938 Belgrade building generated more relevant selection results.




Akanbi, L. A., Oyedele, L. O., Akinade, O. O., Ajayi, A. O., Davila Delgado, M., Bilal, M., & Bello, S. A. (2018). Salvaging building materials in a circular economy: A BIM-based whole-life performance estimator. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 129, 175–186.

Al-Tamimi, A. S., Baghabra Al-Amoudi, O. S., Al-Osta, M. A., Ali, M. R., & Ahmad, A. (2020). Effect of insulation materials and cavity layout on heat transfer of concrete masonry hollow blocks. Construction and Building Materials, 254, 119300.

Bari, N. A. A., Yusuff, R., Ismail, N., Jaapar, A., & Ahmad, R. (2012). Factors Influencing the Construction Cost of Industrialised Building System (IBS) Projects. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 689–696.

Bellamy, LA., Mackenzie, DW. (2001) Thermal performance of buildings with heavy walls. BRANZ Building Research Association of New Zealand study report 108, 1–45. ISSN: 0113-3675

Bruen, M. (2021). Uptake and Dissemination of Multi-Criteria Decision Support Methods in Civil Engineering—Lessons from the Literature. Applied Sciences, 11(7), 2940. MDPI AG.

Bylaw on building constructions (2020). Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No.122/2020. Retrieved from http://www.

Bylaw on energy efficiency of buildings (2011). Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No.61/2011. Retrieved from

Caruana, C., Yousif, C., Bacher, P., Buhagiar, S., & Grima, C. (2017). Determination of thermal characteristics of standard and improved hollow concrete blocks using different measurement techniques. Journal of Building Engineering, 13, 336–346.

Chew, M. Y. L., Silva, N., Tan, P. P., & Das, S. (2006). Grading of risk parameters for façade maintainability. International Journal on Architectural Science, 7(3), 77-87.

Chew, M., & Tan, P. (2004). Assessing the Maintainability of Building Façades in the Tropics.

Chew, M., de Silva, N., & Tan, S. (2004). A neural network approach to assessing building façade maintainability in the tropics. Construction Management and Economics, 22(6), 581–594.

Chew, M.Y.L., De Silva, N. (2004). Factorial method for performance assessment of building façades. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 130, No. 4, pp. 525-533.

Clarke, D. R. (2003). Materials selection guidelines for low thermal conductivity thermal barrier coatings. Surface and Coatings Technology, 163–164, 67–74.

De Toro, P., & Iodice, S. (2017). Evaluation in Urban Planning: a multi-criteria approach for the choice of alternative Operational Plans in Cava De’ Tirreni. Aestimum, (69), 93-112.

Donato, M., Zemella, G., Rapone, G., Hussain, J., & Black, C. (2017). An innovative app for a parametric, holistic and multidisciplinary approach to early design stages. Journal of Façade Design and Engineering, 5(2), 113–127

Fajfar, P. (2017). Analysis in seismic provisions for buildings: past, present and future. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(7), 2567–2608.

Fioretti, R., & Principi, P. (2014). Thermal performance of hollow clay brick with low emissivity treatment in surface enclosures. Coatings, 4(4), 715-731.

Gojković, M. (1989). Drvene konstrukcije – fakultetski udžbenik [Wooden constructions – Faculty textbook]. Građevinski fakultet, Beograd. ISBN: 8623410289 9788623410284

Greco, S., Ehrgott, M., & Figueira, J. R. (2016). Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis. Springer Publishing.

Harvey, N., & Holmes, C. A. (2012). Nominal group technique: an effective method for obtaining group consensus. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 18(2), 188-194.

Hecht, A. R. (1977). A Modified Delphi Technique for Obtaining Consensus on Institutional Research Priorities. Research Brief. Hendry, E. A. (2001). Masonry walls: materials and construction. Construction and Building Materials, 15(8), 323–330.

Honstede, W.V. (1990). Research into the quality of housing stocks in the Netherlands, Building Maintenance and Modernization Worldwide, Vol. 2 (Edited by L.K. Quah), pp. 659-668, Singapore, Longman.

Hugé, J., & Mukherjee, N. (2018). The nominal group technique in ecology & conservation: Application and challenges. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9(1), 33–41.

International Organization for Standardization. (2007a). Building components and building elements — Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance — Calculation methods (ISO 6946:2007). Retrieved from

International Organization for Standardization. (2007b). Building materials and products — Hygrothermal properties — Tabulated design values and procedures for determining declared and design thermal values (ISO 10456:2007). Retrieved from

International Organization for Standardization. (2017). Building components and building elements — Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance — Calculation methods (ISO 6946:2017). Retrieved from Ismaiel, M., Chen, Y., Cruz-Noguez, C., & Hagel, M. (2021). Thermal resistance of masonry walls: a literature review on influence factors, evaluation, and improvement. Journal of Building Physics.

Jato-Espino, D., Castillo-Lopez, E., Rodriguez-Hernandez, J., & Canteras-Jordana, J. C. (2014). A review of application of multi-criteria decision making methods in construction. Automation in Construction, 45, 151-162.

Keshavarz Ghorabaee, M., Zavadskas, E. K., Olfat, L., & Turskis, Z. (2015). Multi-criteria inventory classification using a new method of evaluation based on distance from average solution (EDAS). Informatica, 26(3), 435-451.

Keshavarz Ghorabaee, M., Amiri, M., Zavadskas, E. K., Turskis, Z., & Antucheviciene, J. (2017). Stochastic EDAS method for multi-criteria decision-making with normally distributed data. Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, 33(3), 1627–1638.

Kumar, S., Tewari, P., Mathur, S., & Mathur, J. (2017). Development of mathematical correlations for indoor temperature from field observations of the performance of high thermal mass buildings in India. Building and Environment, 122, 324-342.

Law on fire protection (2018). Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No.87/2018. Retrieved from http://www.pravno-informa-

Law on Planning and Construction (2021). Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No.9/2020. Retrieved from

Linstone, H. A., & Turoff, M. (2002). The Delphi Method. Van Haren Publishing.

Marković, Z. (2007) Jedan pristup normalizaciji matrice podataka u višekriterijumskoj analizi. [One of the approaches to the normalization of the data matrix in multi-criteria analysis]. XXV Simpozijum o novim tehnologijama u poštanskom i telekomunikacionom saobraćaju [XXV Symposium on New Technologies in Postal and Telecommunication Traffic]. PosTel 2007, 71–80.

Mathew, M., & Sahu, S. (2018). Comparison of new multi-criteria decision making methods for material handling equipment selection. Management Science Letters, 139–150.

McAdam, B. (2010). Building information modelling: the UK legal context. International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, 2(3), 246–259.

Mijatović, R. (Ed.). (2008). NORMATIVI I STANDARDI RADA U GRAĐEVINARSTVU, VISOKOGRADNJA, GRAĐEVINSKI RADOVI, KNJIGA 1 I 2 [Normatives and Standards in Construction, Building Construction and Construction Works, Book 1 and 2]. Građevinska knjiga. ISBN: 978-86-395-0543-1

Moghtadernejad, S., Chouinard, L. E., & Mirza, M. S. (2018). Multi-criteria decision-making methods for preliminary design of sustainable façades. Journal of Building Engineering, 19, 181–190.

Moghtadernejad, S., Chouinard, L. E., & Mirza, M. S. (2020). Design strategies using multi-criteria decision-making tools to enhance the performance of building façades. Journal of Building Engineering, 30, 101274.

Moghtadernejad, S., Mirza, M. S., & Chouinard, L. E. (2019). Façade Design Stages: Issues and Considerations. Journal of Architectural Engineering, 25(1)

Mukherjee, N., Dicks, L. V., Shackelford, G. E., Vira, B., & Sutherland, W. J. (2016). Comparing groups versus individuals in decision making: a systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence, 5(1), 1-9.

Ogrodnik, K. (2019). Multi-Criteria Analysis of Design Solutions in Architecture and Engineering: Review of Applications and a Case Study. Buildings, 9(12), 244.

Pérez-Lombard, L., Ortiz, J., González, R., & Maestre, I. R. (2009). A review of benchmarking, rating and labelling concepts within the framework of building energy certification schemes. Energy and Buildings, 41(3), 272–278. Puška, A. (2013). Normalizacija podataka I njen uticaj na rangiranje investicionih projekata [Normalization data and impact of in ranking invesment projects]. Poslovni Konsultant, 5(22), 30-41.

Rückert, K., Shahriari, E., & Markaz-i Taḥqīqāt-i Sākhtimān va Maskan (Iran). (2014). Guideline for Sustainable, Energy Efficient Architecture & Construction. Deutscher Universitätsverlag. ISBN: 6001131147.

Šiožinytė, E., & Antuchevičienė, J. (2013). Solving the problems of daylighting and tradition continuity in a reconstructed vernacular building. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 19(6), 873-882.

Štilić, A. (2020). Novel EDAS++ method: Interval type criteria and extension to EDAS. Turisticko Poslovanje, 25–26, 39–52.

Štilić, A., Nicić, M., Zimonjić, B., & Njeguš, A. (2019). Application of multi-criteria method EDAS in tourism industry candidates’ ranking and the introduction of corrective step. Turisticko Poslovanje, 23, 61–75. Stojanović, Z., Kurtović-Folić, N., & Jakovljević, Z. (2004). Predmer i predračun radova [Bill of Quantities and Estimate of Works]. Studio 14. ISBN: 86-905335-0-8

The Institute of Urbanism Belgrade. (2016). General Regulation Plan (GRP) for the building area of the local self-government unit – the City of Belgrade (units I-XIX). Official Gazette of the City of Belgrade, No.20. Retrieved from

Tian, G., Zhang, H., Feng, Y., Wang, D., Peng, Y., & Jia, H. (2018). Green decoration materials selection under interior environment characteristics: A grey-correlation based hybrid MCDM method. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 682-692. Ulykbanov, A.,

Sharafutdinov, E., Chung, C. W., Zhang, D., & Shon, C. S. (2019). Performance-based model to predict thermal conductivity of non-autoclaved aerated concrete through linearization approach. Construction and Building Materials, 196, 555–563.

Van de Ven, A., Delbecq, A. L., & Nominal Versus Interacting Group Processes for Committee. (1971). Decision-Making Effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 14(2), 203-212.

Weber, E. U., & Johnson, E. J. (2009). Mindful judgment and decision making. Annual review of psychology, 60, 53-85.

Wen, Z., Liao, H., Zavadskas, E. K., & Antuchevičienė, J. (2021). Applications of fuzzy multiple criteria decision making methods in civil engineering: a state-of-the-art survey. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 27(6), 358-371.

Yeoh, B. (1990). Singapore – Singapore. Compiled by Stella R. Quah and Jon S.T. Quah. World Bibliographical Series Vol. 95. Oxford, Santa Barbara, Denver: Clio Press, 1988. Pp. 258. Map, Indexes. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 21(2), 504–506.